Future Tenses in English

There are a number of different ways of referring to the future in English. It is important to remember that we are expressing more than simply the time of the action or event. Obviously, any ‘future’ tense will always refer to a time ‘later than now’, but it may also express our attitude to the [ View Post… ]

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Distributive determiners refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of the group. They show different ways of looking at the individuals within a group, and they express how something is distributed, shared, or divided. Using “each” and “every” Each is a way of seeing the members of a group as [ View Post… ]

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Simple present tense

The simple present tense is one of several forms of present tense in English. It is used to describe habits, unchanging situations, general truths, and fixed arrangements. The simple present tense is simple to form. Just use the base form of the verb: (I take, you take, we take, they take) The 3rd person singular [ View Post… ]

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Question Forms and Reported Speech

Word order Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subject comes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use ‘do’ or ‘did’: Examples Direct speech Indirect speech “Where does Peter live?” She asked him where Peter lived. “Where are you going?” She asked where I was going. “Why is [ View Post… ]

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Relative clauses

Relative clauses are clauses starting with the relative pronouns who*, that, which, whose, where, when. They are most often used to define or identify the noun that precedes them. Here are some examples: Do you know the girl who started in grade 7 last week? Can I have the pencil that I gave you this [ View Post… ]

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Pre-determiners are normally placed before an indefinite article + adjective + noun to express an opinion about the noun they modify. Such and what are used to express surprise or other emotions. EXAMPLES What a lovely day! She’s such a beautiful woman. You can’t imagine what an incredible meal I just ate. I’ve had such a good time today! Rather and quite are commenting words, referring to the degree [ View Post… ]

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Past perfect

Functions of the past perfect The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first – the tense makes it clear which one happened first. In these examples, Event [ View Post… ]

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Past continuous tense

Functions of the Past continuous The past continuous describes actions or events in a time before now, which began in the past and is still going on at the time of speaking. In other words, it expresses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past. It is used: Often, to describe the background in a [ View Post… ]

How to report hopes, intentions, and promises

When we report an intention, hope or promise, we use an appropriate reporting verb followed by a ‘that’ clause with ‘would’ in it, or a to-infinitive clause. Verbs used in this pattern include: hope, promise, threaten, guarantee, & swear. Note that the word ‘that’ is optional when using a that clause, as in the first example [ View Post… ]

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Parentheses and brackets

The difference between brackets and parentheses can be a bit confusing. Generally, ‘parentheses’ refers to round brackets ( ) and ‘brackets’ to square brackets [ ]. However, we are more and more used to hearing these referred to simply as ’round brackets’ or ‘square brackets’. Usually we use square brackets – [ ] – for [ View Post… ]

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