How to change verb tenses when reporting speech

How to change verb tenses when reporting speech. Normally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from the tense in direct speech: She said, “I am tired.” = She said that she was tired. Phrase in Direct Speech Equivalent in Reported Speech Simple present Simple past “I always drink coffee”, she said She said that she always drank coffee. Present continuous [ View Post… ]

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Interrogative adverbs

The interrogative adverbs why, where, how, & when are placed at the beginning of a question. These questions can be answered with a sentence or a prepositional phrase. After an interrogative adverb in a question, you must invert the subject and verb so that the verb comes first. Examples Why are you so late? There [ View Post… ]

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Forming infinitives The infinitives are the base form of a verb. In English, when we talk about the infinitive we are usually referring to the present infinitive, which is the most common. There are, however, four other forms of the infinititive: the perfect infinitive, the perfect continuous infinitive, the continuous infinitive, & the passive infinitive. [ View Post… ]

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Indefinite pronouns

Indefinite pronouns do not refer to a specific person, place, or thing. In English, there is a particular group of indefinite pronouns formed with a quantifier or distributive preceeded by any, some, every and no. Person Place Thing All everyone everybody everywhere everything Part (positive) someone somebody somewhere something Part (negative) anyone anybody anywhere anything None [ View Post… ]

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How to change time and place references when reporting speech

How to change time and place references when reporting speech. Time and place must often change when going from direct to reported speech. Phrase in direct speech Equivalent in reported speech today that day “I saw him today“, she said. She said that she had seen him that day. yesterday the day before “I saw him yesterday“, she [ View Post… ]

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Adverbs of place

Adverbs of place tell us where something happens. Adverbs of place are usually placed after the main verb or after the clause that they modify. Adverbs of place do not modify adjectives or other adverbs. Some examples of adverbs of place: here, everywhere, outside, away, around Examples John looked around but he couldn’t see the [ View Post… ]

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How to use the perfect continuous conditional

Form Forming perfect continuous conditional: In type 3 conditional sentences, the perfect form of the present conditional may be used. If clause (condition) Main clause (result) If + past perfect perfect continuous conditional If this thing had happened that thing would have been happening. Function The perfect continuous conditional can be used in type 3 [ View Post… ]

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Future Obligations

FORM When we write about future obligations, we can use a formal pattern composed of two elements the verb to be in the present tense conjugated to match the subject + the infinitive of the main verb TO TRAVEL, AS A FUTURE OBLIGATION Affirmative Negative Interrogative Negative Interrogative I am to travel. I am not [ View Post… ]

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Indefinite and Incomplete Quantities

Some and any can be used with countable and uncountable nouns to describe an indefinite or incomplete quantity. USING “SOME” Some can be used in descriptive sentences. EXAMPLES I had some rice for lunch. He got some books from the library. I will have some news next week. Philip wants some help with his exams. There is some butter in the fridge. Some is also used in interrogative sentences when [ View Post… ]

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Future perfect

Form The future perfect is composed of two elements the simple future of the verb “to have” (will have) + the past participle of the main verb Subject + will have + past participle of the main verb He will have finished. I will have finished. To arrive, future perfect tense Affirmative Negative Interrogative Negative [ View Post… ]

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